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He was careful not to write any of the five leaflets printed because he wanted to protect his family. The members wrote, printed and distributed all six leaflets. On February 18, , the Scholls were distributing the sixth leaflet at the university when they were discovered by the caretaker, who delivered them to the Gestapo.

They were searched and the police found a handwritten draft. They took the letter from Hans, went to the Scholl apartment until they found the matching handwriting, and issued an arrest for Christoph Probst. Both Hans and Sophie Scholl tried to deny involvement by Christoph. They begged for his freedom. They asked for clemency during interrogation and the trial for the sake of Christoph's wife and his two little boys, and his newly born daughter.

Herta Probst was sick with childbed fever at the time Christoph was arrested. The three were executed in Munich's Stadelheim prison in February Judge Roland Freisler presided over the hearing. Lawfully, there was a ninety day waiting period before the death sentence could be carried out, enough time to appeal the decision, but the rules were not followed. Shortly after Christoph embraced the Catholic faith, he was executed by guillotine on February 22, A trafficway in Innsbruck was named for Christoph Probst.

Two signs in the square in front of the university indicate Christoph-Probst-Platz. The White Rose really has a more symbolic value, but that's a very important value. She was the fourth of six children:. In , Scholl started attending a secondary school for girls. She was aware of the dissenting political views of her father, of friends, and also of some teachers.

Political attitude had become an essential criterion in her choice of friends. In spring , she graduated from secondary school. This was not the case, though, and in spring she began a six month stint in the auxiliary war service as a nursery teacher in Blumberg. Her brother Hans, who was studying medicine there, introduced her to his friends. They often attended concerts, plays and lectures together. In Munich, Scholl met a number of artists, writers and philosophers, particularly Carl Muth and Theodor Haecker , who were important contacts for her.

The question they pondered the most was how the individual must act under a dictatorship. During the summer vacation in , Scholl had to do war service in a metallurgical plant in Ulm. It, too, was banned and for this reason, it formed many splinter youth groups. Graf showed conviction in his beliefs at a young age. Moreover, in his address book he crossed out the names of friends who had joined the Hitler Youth.

The parade was a dominated by swastikas, brown-shirted Hitler Youth troops marching in formation, and "Sieg Heils. The detention had lasted three weeks. His time in jail did not weaken his resolve to participate in anti-Nazi activities or organizations. In early Graf was conscripted into the German army as student-soldier. He was horrified by the suffering he witnessed.

In his army medic files it was noted that his care of the ill was "exemplary.

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Webel, the Chief Medical Officer, that Graf "showed himself to be an intrepid medic who never thought about his own safety. Graf's main role in the White Rose was to function as a recruiter in other cities around Germany. He also participated in anti-Nazi and anti-Hitler graffiti campaigns. While under interrogation Graf yielded no names, and took on blame for White Rose activities in order to protect others who had not yet been arrested. His grave is in the St. Johann; a student residence in Munich also honours Graf by bearing his name. George Wittenstein, a "core" member of a group of very close friends that later became known as "The White Rose" resistance group.

In the past decade there has been a revival in the attention given to "The White Rose," which promoted the resistance to Nazi ideology during Adolf Hitler's Third Reich. According to Dr. Wittenstein, much of the published accounts regarding "The White Rose" contain inaccuracies, in some cases being entirely incorrect. It is for this reason that Dr. Wittenstein has made it a goal for the remainder of his life to contribute whatever he can to aid in setting the record straight.

Wittenstein was invited to speak was an example of insufficient historical research. Before the exhibit was opened to the public, he was given a chance to see it for himself. To his dismay, pictures of his friends in "The White Rose" had been mislabeled and the only successful military putsch revolt against Hitler was not even mentioned another fact that often goes unmentioned is that "The White Rose" was the only group which addressed the treatment and extermination of Jews.

At the last minute, Dr Wittenstein changed his original speech to address these inaccuracies.

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A reporter approached him that day after his revised speech from the LA Times who remarked, "once a rebel, always a rebel. Wittenstein stressed the fact that in most democratic societies today it is impossible for people to even begin to comprehend the oppressive nature of Hitler's total dictatorship, which makes it difficult to explain.

The Nazi party was extremely efficient in establishing itself as the new government and within days of Hitler's appointment as Chancellor, the Nazis had taken control over every aspect of public life. Every city block had an informer who reported any "suspicious" activity to the Gestapo secret police. Communication was monitored to such an extent that in one case, Dr Wittenstein recalled, while sitting in a theater watching the news, a man was arrested by the Gestapo. No doubt he must have made a negative comment about the regime.

Under these conditions, any form of resistance was extremely dangerous and finding allies was impossible for all practical purposes. Without open communication resistance groups had no way of knowing if other groups even existed. It was not until after the war that Dr. Wittenstein discovered that approximately three hundred other groups had been operating in Germany at the time.

In the early years of Hitler's regime, there were youth groups similar to the US Boy Scouts called "Buendische Jugend" throughout Germany and Europe until the mids when Hitler banned them and forced their members into the ranks of his new "Hitler Youth. This "education" began as early as age four, and was intensified for the older children in the "Hitler Youth" program, in which membership became mandatory in the late s.

What must be noted though, is that it was not until near the war's end that the truth of the atrocities being committed by the Nazis was known. Instead, the German public was presented with lies and false hope in the form of propaganda glorifying Hitler. The friends of "The White Rose" were middle-class students with parents who shared their anti-Nazi sentiment. They had access to the "truth," as Dr.

Wittenstein explained, in the form of radio broadcasts and literature from Switzerland which was politically neutral and the BBC. Once the war had started, listening to foreign radio stations was punishable by death.

Since all communication in Germany was monitored, as well as any literary or artistic works deemed by Hitler as "degenerate" being forbidden, resistance groups relied on "underground" sources of information. In , the year he considers the true beginning of "The White Rose," Dr. Wittenstein met Alexander Schmorell while serving his two-year mandatory military training. In their barracks the two year-olds discussed resistance as well as common academic interests and became close friends.

One of the few accounts that Dr. Wittenstein acknowledged as correctly stated throughout all books written about "The White Rose," was this quote by Alexander Schmorell: "Maybe ten years from now there will be a plaque on this door [of the barracks] which will read: 'This is where the revolution began'.

After their service ended in , the two men attended the University of Munich where they met Hans Scholl and Hellmut Hartert. Christoph Probst, a student and father of two very uncommon for students at the time joined later and became Dr. Wittenstein's closest friend. This "tightly knit" group of friends was for the most part apolitical medical students, discussing more academic issues such as philosophy and art.

After the war, in an effort to memorialize her siblings, Inge Scholl, the elder sister of Hans and Sophie, wrote mostly about them in her book entitled "The White Rose". This led to the now commonly accepted perception that the others who contributed equally and who were also executed played insignificant roles. As the group of friends became more aware of the horrific deeds of the Nazis, they realized the need for action. The only method possible was by writing and distributing leaflets, which was much more dangerous than one would think.

Purchasing mass amounts of paper and stamps immediately roused suspicion. In the first four leaflets were written by Schmorell and Scholl, the first and fourth almost entirely by Scholl, Wittenstein edited the third and fourth leaflets. These leaflets were very idealistic and implied a more passive approach to resistance. Quoting many famous philosophers, they were targeted toward the intellectual community. After a philosophy professor missed two lectures with no explanation, Wittenstein and a painter friend led about fifty fellow students to the university President's office to demand the whereabouts of the teacher.

The President, who was visibly disturbed and frightened, because such action was unheard of in Nazi Germany, denied any knowledge Dr. Wittenstein and his friend then led the group of students on a "sympathy demonstration" through the streets of Munich to the professor's apartment. Such an open protest in broad daylight was until then unthinkable. The student unrest was growing. As was true for all medical students, the friends were drafted into the military but permitted to continue their studies in uniform.

In the summer of they were sent to serve at the Russian front where they gained a new member and friend, Willi Graf. While in Russia, they were exposed to the true extent of the atrocities being committed by the Nazis. Because of Schmorell's ability to speak the language, they had frequent interaction with the Russian people and came to realize that they were genuinely good-natured, despite Hitler's propaganda describing them barbaric animals. Upon their return from Russia, Wittenstein felt that the passive, philosophical approach was not enough and pushed for more active resistance.

A fifth leaflet was written that took this new approach, but it unfortunately required an enormous sacrifice.

The group now realized that in order to save their beloved country, Germany must lose the war as soon as possible. As more students became aware of the true intentions of Hitler's plan, the resentment increased. At the University of Munich one event sparked an almost total riot. The Gauleiter a Nazi appointed head-of-state of Bavaria delivered a speech at the university in which he berated the female students for continuing their studies, while instead they should be producing children for Hitler's "master race. Obviously outraged, the female students attempted to walk out but were stopped and arrested by Gestapo guards.

The male students revolted and took the stage, holding the leader of the Nazi student organization hostage until the women were allowed to leave. After the disappearance of his first professor, Dr. Wittenstein found a new mentor for his Ph. In February of came the fall of Stalingrad and the printing of the sixth and final leaflet.

In another example of misrepresentation, many sources claim that the students wrote the sixth leaflet, when in fact Professor Huber himself wrote it. On February 18, , the final leaflet was distributed. Hans Scholl and his younger sister, Sophie who had joined the group despite Hans' insistence on her safety , clandestinely placed the leaflet throughout the University of Munich. As they left the building they must have realized that they had a few copies remaining and went back inside to drop them into the courtyard from above. They were spotted by a janitor and were immediately arrested. In the following months all but one suspected of being associated with "The White Rose" were arrested.

During his arrest, a draft leaflet written by Christoph Probst was found in Hans Scholl's pocket, which he tried in vain to tear up and swallow. Christoph Probst was promptly arrested and stood trial with the Scholl siblings. Hitler's "Peoples Court," which was established to eliminate his enemies usually by death sentences , flew to Munich from its usual venue in Berlin only four days after the arrests to hold the trial.

After a very brief trial, Hans and Sophie Scholl and Christoph Probst were immediately executed by guillotine. In his defense, Huber gave a speech in which he stated, " I demand the freedom of the German people Having been warned that the Gestapo was once again tracking him Dr. Wittenstein requested transfer to the Italian front, which was out of the range Gestapo jurisdiction and saved him from prosecution. He had already been involved with the "Freiheitsaktion Bayern," a Bavarian resistance group that later carried out the only successful putsch against Hitler as mentioned above, this is yet another historical fact that has been distorted, in this case being completely omitted.

Rupprecht Gerngross, a commander of an unarmed interpreters unit, managed to weed out Nazi supporters under his command, whom he promptly sent to Russia. The unit obtained a huge arsenal of light weapons grenades, rifles, etc. It was in Italy, that Dr. Wittenstein collected diverse weapons and had them transported to this group in Munich. With the help of a like-minded tank commander and his unit, this group overtook the main radio station and disarmed all bridges leading into the city.

As the US forces reached Munich, the resistance group announced over the radio that the citizens must wave white flags in surrender and arrest all the "little Nazis" before they could escape. In this way, Munich was spared total destruction by resisting Hitler's order that every city must be defended to the last man. This is, of course, only a brief overview of the story of "The White Rose," as Dr.

Wittenstein explained, but for myself it had a significant impact, as my mother was born in near Munich. As a child she witnessed the bombing of her hometown and still recalls running for shelter amidst the flames and destruction. Because of the emotional nature of the topic, she, like Dr. Wittenstein, is usually somewhat reluctant to discuss the past.

Both her older brother and father served in the German military, but only her father, an interpreter, survived. Her older brother, Otto, was a fighter pilot for the "Luftwaffe" German Airforce and was killed in battle in As a young boy, I was passionate about flying, so too was my uncle. I remember my mother sitting me down and showing me photos of her older brother when he was close to my age at the time and how emotionally difficult it was for her. He and his friends, being only 13 or 14 years old, had built full-scale gliders that they would launch and pilot from the hilltops of Bavaria.

These same friends, only four or five years later were flying warplanes, most of them never returning. It was not until recently, when I told her that Dr. Wittenstein was coming to speak about "The White Rose," that I really discussed the war again with my mother. After looking through the old photos again, I realized that my uncle and his friends probably built those gliders as part of their training in the "Hitler Youth" after noticing the swastikas painted on the planes and the officer accompanying them.

As impressionable young boys, they were undoubtedly filled with enthusiasm as they built and flew their own aircraft. As they began flying for the "Luftwaffe" as trained fighter pilots, the faces in the pictures began to change. In a matter of a few years, the enthusiastic young boys began to look like weary old men. According to my mother, my uncle in particular became disillusioned as he realized the futility of Hitler's war.

As Dr. Wittenstein talked about the female students' revolt at the University of Munich, it reminded me of stories my mother told me of Hitler's plans for the German women to provide him with as many offspring as possible. Hitler declared that he would be the Godfather of every family's fourth child, and upon bearing a fifth child, the mother would receive a gold medal. After speaking with my mother and hearing Dr. Wittenstein, I can only hope that I have gained some further understanding of the hardships endured by those living under Hitler's dictatorship.

I do realize though, now better than before, that resisting oppression may be life threatening, but in extreme circumstances it is the only way to protect one's freedom. The truth must be told and the people must listen. Schmorell's father, a medical doctor, was a German born and raised in Russia. In his widowed father married a German woman who, like him, grew up in Russia. In the second leaflet Schmorell wrote a passage containing an outcry against the Holocaust.

Once back from Russia, he continued his studies in Munich in the semester. In the letters he wrote from prison he tried to console his family and assured them that he was at peace with his fate and not fearful of death. Early life Huber's birthplace in Chur. He showed an aptitude for such subjects as music, philosophy and psychology. Huber wrote the White Rose's sixth and final leaflet calling for an end to National Socialism. Later, wracked by guilt, Orff would write a letter to his late friend Huber imploring him for forgiveness.

The university had stripped Huber of his position and his doctorate at the time of his arrest. In Kreisau, Moltke set aside an unused part of the estate for farming startups, which earned him harsh criticism from neighbouring landowners. In , Moltke took his junior law examination. Unusually, he chose not to wear a uniform. In October , Moltke wrote, "Certainly more than a thousand people are murdered in this way every day, and another thousand German men are habituated to murder What shall I say when I am asked: And what did you do during that time?

Then they are sent off with what they can carry How can anyone know these things and walk around free? Having access to this information reinforced Moltke's opposition to the war, and the entire program of the Nazi party. In Moltke's opinion, only by believing in God could one be a total opponent of the Nazis.

Kreisau Circle The von Moltke main house at Kreisau. The topics of the first meeting of May, included the failure of German educational and religious institutions to fend off the rise of Nazism. The theme of the second meeting in the autumn of was on post-war reconstruction, assuming the likely defeat of Germany. The third meeting in June, addressed how to handle the legacy of Nazi war crimes after the fall of the dictatorship. Moltke opposed the assassination of Hitler. In the aftermath of the plot some 5, of Hitler's opponents were executed.

In one letter, Moltke noted "Thus it is documented, that not plans, not preparations, but the spirit as such shall be persecuted. He wrote: "But what the Third Reich is so terrified of Nothing else; for that alone we are condemned I just wept a little, not because I was sad or melancholy In that, my conscience drove me — and in the end, that is a man's duty.

Recognition Memorial stone to Moltke and his brother at Kreisau Krzy? As Germany persists in shedding light on the internal dynamics of the Nazi era, Moltke has become a prominent symbol of moral opposition to the Nazi regime. Trepper established the cover firm the "Foreign Excellent Raincoat Company" in Brussels, an export firm with branches in many major European ports. Trepper directed seven GRU networks in France, and the network steadily gathered military and industrial intelligence in Occupied Europe, including data on troop deployments, industrial production, raw material availability, aircraft production, and German tank designs.

Trepper was also able to get important information through his contacts with highly-placed Germans. As a further bonus, these contacts supplied some of Trepper's agents with passes that allowed them to move freely in German-occupied areas. In December German security forces shut down Trepper's transmitter in Brussel. Trepper himself was arrested on 5 December in Paris. Operations by the Trepper ring had been entirely eliminated by the spring of Trepper himself survived the war.

Schulze-Boysen had been active in opposition to the Nazis before Hitler took power, but then joined the Luftwaffe for "cover". In private he continued to meet with other anti-Nazis, including Libertas, whom he married in Harnack also had a circle of anti-Nazi associates. The group gathered intelligence from many sources.

The group was not in contact with the USSR by radio. The network began to unravel in Horst Heilmann tried to warn Schulze-Boysen, but the warning was not in time. Schulze-Boysen was arrested on 30 August, and Harnack on 3 September. The rest of the group was arrested within a few weeks, and many were executed. He had sister, Helga born and brother, Hartmut born Schulze-Boysen's participation in the struggle against the occupiers brought about his swift arrest by the French. Although he was leaning towards the political left, he maintained his contacts to nationalistic circles.

He was released after his parents intervened. The circle published anti-fascist writings. This plaque commemorates Libertas en Harro Schulze-Boysen, who lived here. They were both active resistance fighters in the "Rote Kapelle"-group. From on, the law scholar Arvid Harnack and his wife, the American literary scholar Mildred Harnack, were determined to fight the National Socialist regime from within. In the circle with Adam Kuckhoff, his wife Greta and other friends they discussed new literature, fundamental political questions and scholarly problems.

After his second state examination in law he was employed in the Reich Ministry of Economics. He maintained some of his links to representatives from the American and Soviet embassies with whom he had previously been in contact. After Harnack, a cautious, sober ministerial official, intended to contribute most of all to ending the war quickly and securing the independent existence of Germany as a nation. To achieve this, he fought the regime from within not only with study courses and leaflets, but also by trying to establish contact with other resistance members and to shorten the war by passing on important military information to the Soviet Union.

The exhibit runs from August 7 until November 27, She was acclaimed for her translations of Goethe's works into English and for her work as a part-time writer for several newspapers and magazines. They were well-connected to various groups of intellectuals and also to members of the strongly oppressed and persecuted opposition movement in Nazi Germany. Mildred and her husband created a discussion group that focused on political perspectives should the National Socialist movement collapse or be overthrown.

The term "red" referred to the contacts the group maintained with Soviet spies. However, an often forgotten fact is that the group also had contact with the British and the American governments. Initially, Mildred Harnack was sentenced to a six-year prison term, but Hitler negated that sentence and ordered a new trial. Her last words before being executed were purported to have been: "Und ich hatte Deutschland so geliebt. After that, in , he was a dramatic adviser at the Berliner Schauspielhaus.

It bore his name from to CIC file ref. Helmut Roloff about He claimed that he was unaware of the anti-Nazi activities of his friends, and that they had only met to listen to music. His friends in the Rote Kapelle did not betray him either, even under torture, and he was released for lack of evidence. He continued to live in Berlin, where he died in With her brother Kurt, Ilse soon resumed contact with politically minded groups in the fight against the Nazi regime.

She kept constant contact with her childhood friend Helmut Kindler. In autumn she met Carl Helfrich, with whom she lived until her arrest in an apartment in Berlin. A Gestapo report of November said a radio message from the Soviet Union informed that a parachuted resistance fighter would come to her address. He was then also arrested in October He was murdered in June Warning messages sent by Ilse code name "Alta" about the impending invasion of the Soviet Union were ignored by the Soviet leadership. She was the only woman to be featured on a special coin issued by the East German Ministry of State Stasi to commemorate important spies in Communist service during the war.

Masha Bruskina. Masha Bruskina was a Russian teenage female partisan. In the photos of her, you will see that she has blond hair, but her natural colour was dark. She dyed her hair when she started to work for the underground. Witnesses to her hanging, testified that Masha struggled hard and lost control of her bladder and bowels. After hanging for three days, she and the men were taken down and only when her body was traditionally washed before her burial by local people and members of her family, did her dark hair show up.

She worked as a nurse in a military hospital and was a member of an underground cell which aided Soviet officers hospitalised there to escape and join the partisans. The members of this cell were informed on and quickly rounded up. Masha and two of her male comrades, Volodya Sherbateivich and Krill Trous, were sentenced to death.

They were led through the streets with Masha wearing a large placard proclaiming that they were partisans and hanged one at a time, Masha first, by the Infanteriedivision, who meticulously filmed the proceedings. Zoya Kosmodemjanskaja was another Russian partisan. German soldiers quickly caught one of them - Wassilij Klubkow. Under interrogation he betrayed Zoya. She was arrested and tortured before being sentenced to hang.

Round her neck was hung a sign describing the reason for her execution. During Zoya's interrogation, she used the name of Tanya a popular Russian first name as an alias and her real name was only discovered much later. Even in the newspaper article, where her execution was described in full detail, the author calls her Tanya. Vera Voloshina served in the same partisan group as Zoya and was described as a pretty 23 year old blonde. She had been wounded in the shoulder during a gun fight with German soldiers and captured. After torture, Vera Voloshina was also publicly hanged, later the same day.

Klava Nazarova was hanged in and is one of the three women who were later made Heroes of Soviet Union. The other two were Zoya above and Maria Kislyak see below. Klava was born in and was 24 when she died. She was said to be quite an attractive girl. After torture, they were each sentenced to death. The Nazis made a big show of the hangings to intimidate the town's people.

The executions were carried out in three parts. Klava and Nura were first to suffer. The girls were led out and the soldiers hoisted Klava onto a stool beneath the beam. She was wearing a light grey coat without a hat or scarf and her hands were tied behind her back. The executioner put the noose around her neck and one of the officers took pictures of her.

A moment before the stool was removed from under her feet, Klava, screamed to the crowd: - Farewell! We'll win! The next moment she was hanging. Nura was then hanged beside her. From Ostrov a procession of soldiers went to the next village, Nogino. The executioners stopped at a barn in Nogino and put up two nooses on a crossbeam. Here they hanged Ivan and Nadezhda Kozlovskiy. Nadezhda was said to have been almost unconscious before she hanged.

The village had been occupied by the Germans during Maria and her school friend, Fedor Rudenko, who were both Komsomol members, hatched a plan to murder a German officer as an act of revenge for the cruelty inflicted by the Nazis on the local people. The plan was for 18 year old Maria, who was very pretty, to make friends with a German Lieutenant. She suggested to this man that they went for a walk in the countryside to which he naturally agreed.

Outside the village, Fedor was waiting for them and came up behind the soldier and hit him over the head with an iron crowbar. Maria was arrested the next day and violently beaten during her interrogations but maintained her innocence throughout. As they could not prove anything, they finally let her go. Several months later, Maria and her friends murdered another officer in the same way. This time the Germans arrested nearly inhabitants as hostages and declared that they would execute them all if the murderers didn't come forward.

The following day Maria and her friends gave themselves up to the Gestapo and confessed to the murder. Maria claimed that she was the leader of the group. Three nooses dangled from the branch each with a box under it. The prisoners were made to step up onto the boxes, the executioner noosed them and then boxes were kicked out from under their feet leaving them to slowly strangle to death. She was made to stand on a large chest, her hands were tied behind her and she was noosed with a thin cord.

The chest was pulled away leaving her suspended. She was a member of the Birkenau Sonderkommando. The plan was to blow up one of the crematoria which it was hoped would lead to a general uprising in the camp. Ala Gertner, was a 32 year old married woman, who also became part of the resistance movement in the camp and recruited Estera Wajcblum and Regina Safirsztajn because they had access to explosives.

They were led out and made to stand on folding chairs placed under the beam.

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Once they had been noosed and their death sentences read out to the assembled inmates, the chairs were taken away and they were left suspended. Roza's last word prior to her execution was, "Nekama! She enjoined the other inmates to "Be strong, have courage". She shared her privileges as one of the camp elite—including her tiny private room—with her young friend, Sala. After nearly a year in Geppersdorf, Ala and Sala were allowed to return home, where the intensity of their friendship was captured by a local photographer. Although separated from Sala, Ala sustained for two more years a rare, optimistic, loving, and energetic correspondence.

Forced into the Sosnowitz ghetto in March , Ala was reunited with Bernhard and they were soon married. On August 1, the final liquidation of the Sosnowitz ghetto began. Ala was sent to Auschwitz, where she worked at the Union Munitions Factory. She joined an underground conspiracy to smuggle gunpowder to the Sonderkommando, the work crew that burned and buried corpses from the gas chambers. Their revolt was the only armed uprising at Auschwitz. Ala Gertner and Sala Garncarz, September Most of the men who had escaped after the explosion were recaptured and killed, and four women—Ala, Roza Robota, Regina Sapirstein, and Esther Wajcblum—were arrested and charged with acts of sabotage and resistance.

They were tortured and all four were hanged publicly on January 5, , only a few weeks before the camp was liberated. Both were sentenced to hang in front of the assembled inmates. She was led out and mounted the gallows but while her sentence was being read out, she slashed her wrists with a razor blade she had concealed up her sleeve.

As the guards tried to take the blade from her, Mala slapped one across the face with her bloodied hand and yelled, "I fall a heroine and you will die as a dog. Eva was a bookseller and also worked for the Schulze-Boysen-Harnack resistance group. It is more likely that she was guillotined, however, as this was the normal method for women. In , she joined the resistance group and spy ring "Rote Kapelle" but left after only six weeks because of disagreements within the group. When the German authorities investigated the group, her name was discovered and this was enough evidence on which to arrest her, charge her with treason and sentence her to death.

Among those they took in was resistance leader, Dr. Carl Goerdeler and the Mayor of Leipzig. Elizabeth, her mother and husband, were all arrested by the Gestapo, and subjected to torture under interrogation. OnNovember 30th, , all three were guillotined at two minute intervals. Gertrud was 28 years old at the time of her execution and was a nurse and social worker. She had been born in Berlin and served for a time in the Nazi Labour Corps. She was arrested in for helping Jews to escape Nazi persecution and for "defeatist statements designed to undermine the moral of the people".

She was tried before the People's Court in Potsdam and executed on the 12th of January And as a French Resistance fighter who saved the lives of more than servicemen in the Second World War, there will be plenty who have cherished her. Mrs Peel today told how she received a personal letter of thanks from Winston Churchill for her valued efforts. For security reasons, the letter had to be immediately destroyed. Andree Peel, upper, photographed during the war and, lower, proudly wearing the medals she has been awarded for her bravery. But along with Mrs Peel herself, plenty of other souvenirs of the war have survived.

Thought to be among the most highly decorated women to have survived the conflict, she was awarded France's highest award for Bravery, the Legion d'Honneur, by her own brother - four-star General Maurice Virot. She was also awarded the War Cross with palm, the War Cross with purple star, the medal of the Resistance and the Liberation cross. Mrs Peel, who now lives in Long Ashton, Bristol, saved more than Allied pilots in a three year period working for the Resistance. She was locked away in two Nazi concentration camps and even faced a Nazi death squad, but was saved at the last minute when they fled as Americans troops advanced on the camp.

Code-named Agent Rose, the resistance fighter passed on vital information about the German Army after it invaded her home town of Brest, in Brittany, France. Mrs Peel holds up the concentration camp uniform she had to wear after she was captured. She spent time in two such camps and miraculously survived a firing squad. The couple married in France and moved to England after the war where Mr Peel, who has since died, was a clinical psychologist. Today as she celebrated her birthday, Mrs Peel who says she was 'too old' to have children by the time the war had ended, said: 'The war is a time I will never forget.

This elegant picture of Mrs Peel, who operated under the codename Agent Rose, was taken during the Second World War when she was working for the Resistance. In my house in Brest I used to hide the British and help them with their orders. This was extremely dangerous as the Germans had occupied France during this time.

Her first role was distributing clandestine newspapers, but within weeks she was made head of a section in the Resistance reporting on troop movements, naval installations and the results of Allied attacks. Agent Rose and her team used torches to guide Allied planes and smuggled fugitive airmen on to submarines and gun-boats on remote parts of the coast.

She fled to Paris and assumed another identity when the Gestapo closed in on the Resistance network in Brest, but was arrested a week after D-Day. She still keeps the striped blue and grey camp uniform she was forced to wear in the concentration camp as a reminder and said: 'It was a terrible time but looking back I am so proud of what I did and I'm glad to have helped defend the freedom of our future generations. She continued: 'You don't know what freedom is if you have never lost it.

Everybody was ready to contribute to the fight and to risk their lives. We had accepted we would die. The only fear we had was of being tortured and of speaking under torture. Even this year the two major Belarusian movies that came out - both State sponsored and independent movie, forbidden in Belarus - are dealing with WWII and Belarusian partisans. The march of ever diminishing number of the WWII veterans in Minsk every May 9 is a cherished national event televised not only in Belarus, but in many neighboring states. Even now I shall probably restrict it to dry statistics as I write these lines on a sunny Californian Saturday of July 24, with a lump in my throat.

Fear and suspicion were nesting in every house. The forced organization of collective farms - kolkhozes - from individual peasant families sparked many conflicts and resulted in many victims. Millions of executions were performed in a permanent hunt of traitors and "inner enemies". The repressions against Poles and anti-communists on the occupied areas were a background in which Belarus has arrived into Generalkommissar Wilhelm Kube left receives power as a head of newly formed Minsk German administration, August 31, When Kube was killed by Minsk underground resistance in Germans have killed 1, hostages - citizens of Minsk - in retaliation.

Estimated , Belarusians have collaborated willingly or unwillingly with Nazi. Many of these nationalists have turned anti-Semitic because of their belief in Jewish origins of Bolshevism. Execution of women and children near Mizoch, October 14, Jewish work column - Mahilyow, Mass executions of entire villages were a common Nazi practice. While initially Germans allowed peasants to take cattle from kolkhoz, later all this cattle was loaded on trains and shipped to Germany.

Many Belarusian youth were shipped to Germany as slaves. It is at this time a serious partisan and underground resistance fight brakes out on the occupied territory in Belarus. Already in the Summer of approximately 12, of Belarusian partisans have conducted military operations against German occupants.

At that time the partisan forces were comprised mostly of Red Army soldiers that escaped surrounding or from German captivity. By January 1, there were Belarusian partisan detachments and 64 diversion groups. They counted approximately 58, partisan fighters. At the same time Ukraine with 4 times larger population than Belarus had 68 partisan detachments with 9, people in them.

Smaliensk region of Russia just East of Belarus had counted partisan detachments and 9 diversion groups - 10, people total. The rumors about crimes of partisans have always existed in Belarus. Common villagers were often as scared of Soviet partisans as they were of Nazi. In an effort to protect the villages from both some village leaders have become double agents of both Nazi and Partisans.

Clearly majority of partisans were not able to fight and feed themselves simultaneously, and so many times they forced Belarusian villagers to give up their food supplies and cattle. This would in term put villagers in mortal danger from Germans, since they could be identified as collaborators to partisans. Belarusian Jewish Masha Bruskina 17y. Jewish partisan on the left partisans public hanging by Nazi. Not all partisan detachments had pristine morals - tyranny of commanders, heavy drinking, anarchy, looting of food and clothing, even rape - were reported.

These actions were known to happen in partisan detachments of Lunin, Charkasau, group of Muhin. In many senses society governed by Communist totalitarian regime of Stalin in ies was already militarized and had established discipline of fear. And so, the development of the network of 1, Communist Party cells within partisan detachments around has considerably improved discipline and cleaned the situation.

Over the period of days of German occupation of Belarus 1, partisan detachments were formed and lead military actions in Belarus with , fighters. Additionally approximately , of locals supported partisan movement. In the cities 70, people were involved in the underground resistance. During the three years of war on occupied territory of Belarus June - July Belarusian partisans and underground resistance fighters have killed or incapacitated more than , of Nazis.

The partisan movement was so overwhelming that in there were large regions in occupied Belarus, where Soviet rule was established deep inside the German occupation territory. The fully functioning partisan kolkhozes were farming and growing cattle to support partisans. Pages of the Moscow propaganda newspaper published for Belarusian partisans "Squish the Fascist Beast". Labanok, R. Machul'ski, K. Zaslonau, V.

Kazlou, V. Korzh, K. Mazurau, M. Zimianin, P. Overall 1. Red Army infantry attack supported by T tank. Red Army woman-sniper in Belarus, July Four Belarusians - P. Halavachou, I. Husakouski, S. Shutau and I. Yakubouski - were honored the title of the Hero of Soviet Union twice. Belarusian partisans and underground resistance members received , combat orders and medals during the WWII. This convention was signed even by Germany in It is hard to guess what strange ideas governed Stalin - a dictator of the USSR at that time - in not signing the convention. But most likely Stalin did not expected anyone to become a prisoner.

He treated all Soviet POWs as traitors. Millions of Soviet POWs and Belarusian forced laborers transported to Germany have paid for this Stalin's attitude with their suffering, tortures and often lives. Many of them served long times 25 years was the usual term in Stalin's Gulags in Siberia. Four women partisans in liberated Minsk, It is now a common belief that every forth citizen of Belarus has perished in the World War II, reaching every third in some regions Vitebsk region.

The Nazi occupation forces were responsible for 2. More than cities and towns out of total , 9, villages were destroyed. The capital of Belarus was ruined by bombings to such extent that for a while it was considered more reasonable to build it in a different place. But emotions took over reason and Minsk was re-built in it's old place, just as entire Belarus was. In about 5 years after war Belarus was rebuilt and Belarusian industry exceeded pre-war levels through an extraordinary effort of the youth delegated by other Soviet Republics of the USSR.

Many of those delegates settled in Belarus and were quite disturbed by the rising nationalism in Belarus of the early ies. VG brings you the most extensive compilation of the information about Belarus on the Web. As a teenager, Vera Oravec Laska defied statistics and lasted three years as a Czechoslovak Resistance fighter instead of the average six months ; survived Auschwitz and two other camps as a political prisoner; and escaped the Nazis during a death march.

After the war, Vera worked full-time as executive secretary for the Czechoslovak War Crimes Investigation Commission while also attending Charles University in Prague, focusing on philosophy and history. Then, on the recommendation of two of her professors, she was sent to the United States in on a fellowship given by the Institute of International Education. She studied at the University of Chicago, earning her doctorate in American history in There she served as a foreign students counselor and also met her future husband: Andrew "Andy" J.

The Laskas lived in Cuba, Brazil, and Chicago before settling in New England, where in Vera joined the faculty at Regis College in Weston, Massachusetts; there she taught American and diplomatic history and earned the love of a generation of students. From the time she settled in Massachusetts, Vera was active in helping refugees from Communist Czechoslovakia.

When the regime was toppled and replaced by a democratic system, she returned for a semester in to her beloved Charles University as a Fulbright professor of American history. She was accompanied by her husband, who served as a director of Citizens Democracy Corps. She was married to Andy for 52 years, until his death on May 23, after a short illness. On December 11, , Vera lost her battle with lung cancer. She was years-old. In at the age of 16, her hometown, Lida, was invaded and set ablaze by the Germans. One day, a gentile man who was with Tuvia Bielski brought a note advising her mother to enter the forest.

Leah and her two brothers survived the war. Leah has 5 grandchildren and 3 great grandchildren, and currently lives in Hallandale Beach, Florida. He travelled to Vilna and attempted to convince his colleagues to send people back to Poland to continue the fight against the Germans. He was released a short time later, and returned to Warsaw in January with his girlfriend, Mira Fuchrer.

He soon joined the? OB, and in November he was appointed as the group's chief commander. During the Polish defense of Vilnius, he was taken prisoner by the Lithuanians and was interned, July 19 — August 18, On June 27, , Lt.

Moreover, the preponderant political circumstances in Poland, Germany and the world favored the Polish cause. Charaszkiewicz's service record noted that his qualifications for intelligence work included a knowledge of German, French and English. Office 2, which had been so named on April 1, , was charged with the planning, preparation and execution of clandestine-warfare operations.

Charaszkiewicz had been assigned to this network already on April 15, They were meant, in future military actions, to paralyze enemy road and rail transport and destroy enemy military depots. Clandestine centers were created in Poland as well as in neighboring countries, chiefly Germany and the Soviet Union. Personnel for the clandestine networks were recruited with great care. Thanks to this, the intelligence services of Poland's neighbors learned nothing about them until mid, when the rising German threat prompted mass Polish training of irregular forces.

In his reports about these meetings, Charaszkiewicz noted how far Poland's techniques outstripped Britain's. He himself harbored in his apartment over 25 Jews for a period going from a few days to several weeks. Polish underground got organized much quicker than the first Jewish underground organization, so at first the Polish underground authorities contacted Jews unofficially. In time, both the Polish and Jewish undergrounds matured and new organizations evolved.

On 1 February Woli? Through Woli? OB, or Jewish Fighting Association. He was also one of people who came out with the initiative of creating? His department provided work permits and shelter allowing many Jews to escape imprisonment and death, he also procured weapons for the Jewish underground. He headed a? After the war Woli? He died in Later, Christian Pineau will say that it's Giraudoux who gave him the love of writing.

After the war, he served as a Minister in French governments between — He was minister of Supply in de Gaulle's government and Minister of Public works — in different governments. For a short time, he was Finance Minister in His proposals were adopted by the party, and in January , Klaras moved to the mountains to start setting up guerrilla groups.

Dimitrios Psarros. He was out-manoeuvred by the KKE leadership and resolved to leave Greece; he repeatedly requested permission from the party to be allowed to be left to depart, but was refused. Though most of his associates abandoned him, he was reported to have continued to conduct guerrilla activities until June Aris and his second in command, Leon Javellas, were isolated by the main unit and finally Aris was killed with his comrade either by a hand grenade or by a bullet. Rumors want him to "commit suicide with his commander Javellas when his thoughts were that there is no better future for his revolution and its betrayals.

When British Labour government members of Parliament objected to the barbarity of the operation, they received the reply that the display was in accordance to "Ancient Greek War Custom". Shortly before the outbreak of World War II, on August 26, , Pilecki was mobilized as a cavalry-platoon commander.

Definitions: They Do Things Differently There

During that conflict known in Poland as the September Campaign , Pilecki and his men destroyed seven German tanks, shot down an aircraft and destroyed two more on the ground. Involved in more heavy fighting on two fronts, by September 22, Pilecki's division was disbanded, partially surrendering to the enemies. He returned to Warsaw with his commander, Major W? Until then, little had been known about the Germans' running of the camp and it was thought to be an internment camp or large prison rather than a death camp.

His superiors approved the plan and provided him with a false identity card in the name of "Tomasz Serafi? Auschwitz concentration camp photos of Pilecki Many smaller underground organizations at Auschwitz eventually merged with ZOW. ZOW provided the Polish underground with invaluable information about the camp. These reports were a principal source of intelligence on Auschwitz for the Western Allies. Pilecki hoped that either the Allies would drop arms or troops into the camp or that the Home Army would organize an assault on it from outside.

Such plans, however, were all judged impossible to carry out. Pilecki decided to break out of the camp, with the hope of personally convincing Home Army leaders that a rescue attempt was a valid option. After several days, he made contact with the Home Army units. The British authorities refused the Home Army air support for an operation to help the inmates escape. The Home Army in turn decided that it did not have enough force to storm the camp by itself. In , the Russian army, despite being within attacking distance of the camp, showed no interest in a joint effort with the Home Army and the ZOW to free the camp.

At first, he fought in the northern city center as a simple private, without revealing his actual rank. Later, as many officers fell, he disclosed his true identity and accepted command. He picks each thing up in turn. He opens it: the combination lock, which he knows without knowing, is set to the letters of his own name. His own long-gone story breaks open on him all over again.

Leo is 12 years old and visiting his upper-class schoolfriend Marcus's family seat, Brandham Hall in Norfolk, in the summer of He is wearing his too-hot Norfolk jacket which makes him a sort of clothing joke , having come away unprepared for heat, in fact confident there wouldn't be any such thing, since he considers himself something of a magician; in the novel's prologue he relates how a curse he wrote in blood in his diary last term has caused two bullies to concuss themselves by falling off the school roof.

He has ordered up a cool summer in the same way. But the summer is hotter than is imaginable. Walls, trees, the very ground one trod on, instead of being cool were warm to the touch: and the sense of touch is the most transfiguring of all the senses. In the heat the senses, the mind, the heart, the body, all told a different tale.

One felt another person, one was another person. He also happens to be a lesser person at Brandham Hall, a mere mortal among its rich gods and goddesses. Marcus's older sister, Marian, is Leo's first encounter with beauty — as if he has met not a person but a concept. She is positioned to marry the local Viscount Winlove, Hugh Trimingham, back from the Boer war with half his face scarred so badly that he looks like the god Janus, Leo thinks; one side an end and the other a beginning.

Trimingham goes about his business wounded and elegant at once, with a great deal more knowledge of what's happening than he lets on. What's happening is this: the facts of life are about to be taught to Leo, a boy so naive that at first it's comic, then it hurts the heart. As the mercury rises, Leo becomes a kind of Mercury himself, a deliverer of messages between Marian and her lower-class lover, the tenant farmer and local "ladykiller", Ted Burgess, who promises to teach Leo what's what when it comes to "spooning". Well, people regularly disagree, and never more so than over trampled civic pride -- whether or not the trampling was intentional or even real.